Intentional plagiarism is a form of intellectual theft that violates widely recognized principles of academic integrity as well as the Honor Code. Such plagiarism may subject the student to appropriate disciplinary action administered through the university Honor Code Office, in addition to academic sanctions that may be applied by an instructor. Inadvertent plagiarism, which may not be a violation of the Honor Code, is nevertheless a form of intellectual carelessness that is unacceptable in the academic community. Plagiarism of any kind is completely contrary to the established practices of higher education where all members of the university are expected to acknowledge the original intellectual work of others that is included in their own work. In some cases, plagiarism may also involve violations of copyright law. Intentional Plagiarism-Intentional plagiarism is the deliberate act of representing the words, ideas, or data of another as one's own without providing proper attribution to the author through quotation, reference, or footnote. Inadvertent Plagiarism-Inadvertent plagiarism involves the inappropriate, but non-deliberate, use of another's words, ideas, or data without proper attribution. Inadvertent plagiarism usually results from an ignorant failure to follow established rules for documenting sources or from simply not being sufficiently careful in research and writing. Although not a violation of the Honor Code, inadvertent plagiarism is a form of academic misconduct for which an instructor can impose appropriate academic sanctions. Students who are in doubt as to whether they are providing proper attribution have the responsibility to consult with their instructor and obtain guidance. Examples of plagiarism include: Direct Plagiarism-The verbatim copying of an original source without acknowledging the source. Paraphrased Plagiarism-The paraphrasing, without acknowledgement, of ideas from another that the reader might mistake for the author's own. Plagiarism Mosaic-The borrowing of words, ideas, or data from an original source and blending this original material with one's own without acknowledging the source. Insufficient Acknowledgement-The partial or incomplete attribution of words, ideas, or data from an original source. Plagiarism may occur with respect to unpublished as well as published material. Copying another student's work and submitting it as one's own individual work without proper attribution is a serious form of plagiarism.
Also, because the land is so poorly used, top soil erosion, polluted water, water scarcity etc affect and burden the poor further. Increasingly, as land is unusable, and because of power politics resulting in a concentration in land ownership, people move to the cities for wage labor, as they are driven away from subsistence labor. Land ownership for the poor provides mechanisms to ensure sustainable and efficient use, because of the need to care for it for their survival, as detailed for example, by Vandana Shiva, in her book Stolen Harvest (South End Press, 2000). The increasing populations in cities are no doubt a strain in many cases but the causes of over population in those cities are rooted in these economic policies and conditions.
Famines were a product of both natural causes such as uneven rainfall, and man-made causes brought on by British economic and administrative policies throughout the region. Since 1857, British administrative policies in India led to the seizure and conversion of local farmland to foreign-owned plantations, restrictions on internal trade, heavy taxation of Indian citizens to support unsuccessful British expeditions in Afghanistan , inflationary measures that increased the price of food and substantial exports of staple crops from India to Britain. Observations by the Famine Commission of 1880 supported the notion that food distribution was more to blame for famines than food scarcity. They observed that each province in British India, including Burma , had a surplus of food grains, and the annual surplus was million tons. British citizens, such as William Digby, agitated for policy reforms and famine relief, but the governing British Viceroy of the time, Lord Lytton, opposed such changes with the belief that they would stimulate shirking by Indian workers.