Her argument has an intrinsic appeal. We mourn (and also celebrate) every time a new technology displaces an artisan's skill. But Steve Graham, professor of education at Vanderbilt University who has worked with Berninger, says the actual evidence in favor of handwriting is weak. He says that if we really wanted to improve children's language skills, we would place enough computers in classrooms so that there was a keyboard at every desk. Sure, he says, kids need a basic ability to handwrite letters, but for fluency with the written word the keyboard is far superior. Children can easily correct mistakes and move text, and when they print out their work it's guaranteed to look good. "It's more motivating," says Graham.
Adaptive and mutated strains of the influenza virus have provided emergence of a new strain called H1N1(2009). This potentially leading towards pandemic conditions that can spread amongst the human population. Early analysis has indicated that certain protein sequences and amino acid conserving conditions are unique to this strain of virus. ” Of 47 signatures that separate avian viruses from human viruses by their nonglycoproteins, 8 were human-like in the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. Close examination of their amino acid residues in the recent ancestral swine viruses of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus showed that 7 had already transitioned to human-like residues and only PA 356 retained an avian-like K; in pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, this residue changed into a human-like R. Signatures that separate swine viruses from human viruses were also present.” (Shih, 2009)
In a Pandemic situation the burden on respective Health Authorities is enormous. Are there sufficient quantities of vaccine ? Are there sufficient medical resources to administer the vaccine ? the cost of communicating and minimizing public panic. In Canada one Medical Officer in the City of Saskatoon stated: “I don’t think people really appreciate that public health hasn’t had to immunize this volume of people for decades,” said Neudorf, who is also Saskatoon’s chief medical officer. ”The planning to deliver this type of campaign in a short time period has been a huge planning issue that has taken a large volume of staff, and many hours to pull together.” (Fitzpatrick, 2009).
Neudorf highlighted the need for a “surge capacity” in the health system that provides the necessary facilities, infrastructure and resources to deal with future pandemic crisis situations. We had the SARS panic in Toronto and now H1N1. It is considered only a matter of time before we face another possibly more sinister crisis. Emergency preparation is vital if we are to minimise the impact and potential fatalities resulting from an outbreak. ” The system’s inability to stretch very far was highlighted during the SARS health emergency in 2003 and the public health community is trying to draw attention to the lack of surge capacity, said Neudorf.” (Fitzpatrick, 2009)
In contrast to laparoscopic gallbladder surgery, laparoscopic procedures on the bile duct are rarely performed by biliary surgeons since they are technically very difficult. Since the bile duct is located deep in the abdomen the incisions for open bile duct surgery are long and large incisions. These incisions are usually associated with a lot of discomfort and require recovery period of 4 to 12 weeks. The majority of patients who undergo open surgery stay in hospital for 4 to 10 days after surgery compared to patients who undergo laparoscopic surgery and stay in hospital for 1 to 3 days after surgery.