In the preface to his book, the Muqaddimah (1377), the Arab historian and early sociologist , Ibn Khaldun , warned of seven mistakes that he thought that historians regularly committed. In this criticism, he approached the past as strange and in need of interpretation. The originality of Ibn Khaldun was to claim that the cultural difference of another age must govern the evaluation of relevant historical material, to distinguish the principles according to which it might be possible to attempt the evaluation, and lastly, to feel the need for experience, in addition to rational principles, in order to assess a culture of the past. Ibn Khaldun often criticized "idle superstition and uncritical acceptance of historical data." As a result, he introduced a scientific method to the study of history, and he often referred to it as his "new science".  His historical method also laid the groundwork for the observation of the role of state , communication , propaganda and systematic bias in history,  and he is thus considered to be the "father of historiography"   or the "father of the philosophy of history". 
The feasibility of implementation and the validity of these surveillance definitions would benefit from further assessment in different types of LTCFs. As with the original article by McGeer and colleagues, 1 these definitions have not been tested in advance of their publication. Data from a French study demonstrated that application of the original surveillance definitions underestimated the number of nursing home–associated infections when compared with provider diagnoses of infection. 9 This finding highlights the need for future studies to determine the sensitivity and specificity of criteria used within the surveillance definitions and to validate their application in this setting.